Anniversary of conclusion of the Treaty of Orebro between Russia and England

18 July 1812

6 (18) July 1812 in Orebro (Sweden), Russia and Great Britain signed a peace treaty, which restored diplomatic relations between the two countries, which were interrupted by the Anglo-Russian War (1807-1812). The treaty had a great political significance.

The war between Russia and Britain arose due to strained relations between them during the Napoleonic Wars. In response to Russia's joining the continental blockade according to the Treaty of Tilsit, the British fleet attacked Denmark, which had long been an ally of Russia. October 26 (November 7), 1807 Russia declared war on England.

Military operations began with the capture by the British of the Russian frigate "Speshny" and transport "Wilhelmina", then, they were held in the Atlantic, the Mediterranean, Adriatic, Baltic and Barents seas. English fleet blockaded foreign ports, where were Russian ships, captured merchant ships, raided the coastal areas. The situation in the Baltic theater for Russia was complicated due to the worsening of relations with Sweden. Russian Emperor Alexander I, basing on the treaties concluded between Russia and Sweden in 1790 and 1800, demanded from the latter to close its ports to the English, but having learned that Sweden formed an alliance with Britain, declared war on it. A year later, despite the support of British troops and navy, Sweden was defeated, after which 5 (17) September 1809 it signed a peace treaty with Russia, and also joined the continental blockade. After the conclusion of the Russian-Swedish peace treaty British ships left the Baltic Sea.

In early 1812 the conclusion of a peace treaty with England was one of the main concerns of Alexander I. 12 (24) June, the day of the invasion of Napoleon's army in Russia, Alexander I authorized his representative in Stockholm, General Sukhtelen, to hold formal negotiations with the British. Three weeks after the start of negotiations, in July 1812, under the mediation of the Swedish Crown Prince Charles John, in Örebro was signed the Anglo-Russian treaty of peace and alliance, consisting of 5 articles.

According to the peace treaty, between the two powers were declared accord and friendship (art. 1); trade relations between Russia and Britain were restored on the basis of the principle of mutual favor (art. 2); British government pledged to provide assistance to Russia in the war with France (art. 3).

July 20 (August 1), 1812 Anglo-Russian peace treaty was ratified by both countries and had been in force prior to the signing of the union Reichenbach Convention (15 (27) June 1813) concluded between Russia and England, which defined their mutual obligations as the members of the sixth anti-French coalition.

Lit.: Внешняя политика России XIX и начала XX века. Сер. 1. Т. 6. М., 1962. Док. 199; Мерников А. Г., Спектор А. А. Всемирная история войн. Минск, 2005; Труайя А. Александр I. М., 2008; Шульц В. К. Подвиги русских моряков. СПб, 1853; То же [Электронный ресурс]. URL: http://www.runivers.ru/lib/book3137/9993.

From the Presidential library materials:

Англо-русская война 1807-1812 гг. // Энциклопедический словарь / под ред. проф. И. Е. Андреевского. Т. 1а. СПб., 1890. С. 736—737;

Мартенс Ф. Ф. Мирный трактат между Россиею и Англиею, заключённый в Эребро. 6 (18) июля 1812 г. (№ 412) // Собрание трактатов и конвенций, заключённых Россиею и иностранными державами. Т. 11: Трактаты с Англиею. 1801-1831. СПб., 1895. С. 154—165.